Why Barnes & Noble
Employees Need A Union!


Disclaimer: This site is no longer active as an organizing site for Barnes & Noble workers. I am keeping this information posted for the historical record and for for anyone interested in what happened. In you have any questions or need advice, you can
email me.


My affidavit to the National Labor relations Board
Chatroom | Bulletin Board | Guestbook

Frushour VS. Barnes&Noble
Drive at #2559 | BNX Site | Santafarce | The ABA and B&N
BN.com Not A Best Seller

Borders Union Site
Dec 22 - 2000 - Workers seek union at Seattle's University Book Store
Workers at Powell's Books in Portland achieve key goals with new contract | Powell's Bookstore Union Site

"8 Ball" Articles| Words from a fellow bookseller | Mailbox | Contacts
Arlington B&N Plans Union | IWW
*Anti-union letter found by B&N workers in Wisconsin*


"#Barnes&Noble_UNION_YES!" irc channel on dalnet. Talk to the BnNmployE.
Click Here for Instructions on Connecting to the irc Channel.

The week of March 5-12th, 2000 the most hits on this website came from IP 63.72.21.20 which is one hop behind Kauff-GW.CUSTOMER.DSL.ALTER.NET This is a DSL connection through alter.net in New York. Jerome Kauff is a senior pertner at B&N's union busting lawfirmm Kauff, McClain & McGuire which is based in New York City. Draw your own conclusions.

Visit the Website of Kauff, McClain & McGuire
The Law Firm representing B&N in NLRB Case 9-CA-35548.




Here are a few reasons I believe the employees at Barnes & Noble stores everywhere need to organize and deserve to exercise their rights to negotiate in good faith with the company to improve their working conditions and sign a legally binding contract of employment.

CONTENTS
News from Store #2705 and other stores around the country Stories of Great Interest to Barnes & Noble Booksellers
Excerpts from Wagner Act B&N Executive Compensation
B&N Securities Ownership Employee Share Ownership (or lack thereof) and 401k Plan
An example of Director’s Stock Options Terms of Employment For Booksellers
National Bookstore CEO salariesAvg. Hourly Wage for Retail Employees for June 1998
Your Rights What Can A Union Do For You
The Myth Of Unions Hurting ProductivityWhat About Initiation Fees & Union Dues?
What Employers Say & Do to keep employees from forming a union.Feedback
Words from B&N bookseller James GainesEmployee Contacts
Letters in the Mailbox"8 Ball" Articles

News from Our store on 8/25/97:
I was saddened and hurt very much today to discover that certain persons at my store who I love and respect very much had broken federal labor laws. I will not elaborate in order to protect those involved, but I will say that we know our rights and will not allow them to be compromised. Goodness knows we have given up too many rights in our poor country in the last few years and I for one will not stand by as certain others try to relieve us of a few more.

News From Our Store on 8/28/97
Today we were honored to host our District Manager. He arrived at 10:00 in the morning and he was still there at 7:00pm when I left to go home. We were also honored to field several phone calls from the President of Barnes & Noble Superstores. Today we also cleared up a few technicalities on labor law. Here is what you can do as an employee to make Barnes & Noble a better place:

Points to consider in regard to a telephone conversation with Mr. Thomas Tolworthy, President of Barnes & Noble Superstores on Friday August 29th, 1997:

1. Mr. Tolworthy stated that most of the company shares are owned by mutual funds. All mutual Funds are business enterprises and are not concerned with the human aspect of businesses they buy shares in . Their primary concern is return on investment. If they own a majority of the shares in our company, then their return on investment becomes our primary order of business.

2. Mr. Tolworthy stated that "from the volume generated by you store, you must have around 60 employees." "No," I said, "we only have 40 employees."

3. Mr. Tolworthy stated that he was in the process of removing the explicit statement of "at will" employee status from the Employee Handbook. He feels that this condition is irrelevant. He did not state that he was going to change the actual terms of "at-will" status for employees . This is in effect a cosmetic attempt to hide the real terms of employment from employees. Whereas the company was up front in it’s explanation of employment terms prior to the posting of our web page, now they want to make it much more difficult for their own employees to realize the legal status of their employment. Now new employees who want to know where they stand will be forced to scour arcane law books to discover their exact legal status as employees of Barnes & Noble. Thanks! As one bookseller in our store observed: "Our society is not based on trust. It is based on laws." I am certain that in their heart of hearts, our managers believe that employees should be able to trust them to deal with all work problems in a fair and equitable manner. However, the latitude and complete authority they demand is somewhat disquieting. Please turn to p.43 in your B&N Employee Handbook: "I also understand that the Company has made no promise to provide me with employment for a definite period of time and that no contract of employment has been created. I understand that all terms and conditions of employment are subject to change without notice," and (p.40) "Barnes & Noble may terminate the employment relationship at any time." I love the work I do for B&N and if I agree to work everyday and very hard at my job, shouldn't I be guaranteed a job when I wake up in the morning? If a bookseller were to become the victim of a capricious manager or employee (and we all know that our store has a few of these) and finds themselves terminated for an unfair reason, most booksellers, will not have the resources, money or time to fight the company on unfair labor charges.

4. Mr. Tolworthy stated that if a contract was signed guaranteeing employment, that he would require reciprocal work. I said that as it stands now, we’re on a one way street. We are still required to do the work without a guarantee of employment and rely on the benevolence of the company. Despite the amount and quality of work that we do, we are guaranteed nothing except the fact that we could be fired at any time for any reason or no reason. What is the reverse view of this? A great selling point for prospective employees - "Come work for us and goof off as much as you can get away with... We have relative standards of work since we give you no guarantee of employment!!" (shame on me, my pride is showing)

5. After discussing all these issues in detail, Mr. Tolworthy said that he had already seen my web page (http://www.booksellersunion.org/B&N.htm) In the web page, I describe each of the issues of concern, and I find it a bit disheartening that Mr. Tolworthy could not come out immediately and say he had seen our web page and our concerns are important ones that we need to discuss.

6. He stated that someone had made a mistake on wages for Louisville. Funny how no one realized this until someone whispered the word "union." Now maybe we can all get raises to bring us up to where we should have been 2 years ago.

7. Lastly, Mr. Tolworthy said "We don’t do a good enough job "MARKETING" ourselves to our employees." I would argue that this was not a Freudian slip on the part of Mr. T, but a statement which bespeaks his perspective on his job and his business. I told him that you should never Market anything to your employees. He said that "communicate" was a more appropriate word, but the damage had already been done.


Webster's Dictionary



News from our store on 9/2/97
8.12 a.m. EDT - Barnes & Noble announces it will slow expansion.
Click here to see related article.
Surprise! Employees working the late shift at Barnes & Noble #2705 were treated to unexpected (and unannounced) group meetings with President of Barnes & Noble Superstores Mr. Thomas Tolworthy, himself. This is of course a great honor for me and I look forward to meeting Mr. Tolworthy tomorrow for the first time in the 13 months since I've worked for our store.
News from our store on 9/3/97 and a hint to other B&N employees:
Today we all learned that if you scream Union! in our company, the management and CEOs will seemingly perform incredible flips and tricks on your behalf.
News from 9/7/97:
B&N booksellers voice their concerns nationwide.

News from 9/11/97:
Tolworthy exercises Officer Stock Options shares acquired 18,859 shares disposed of 18,859
Total 1-day Profit :$374,898

News from 9/16/97
Tolworthy exercises Officer Stock Options
shares acquired 10,000 shares disposed of 10,000

Total 1-day Profit :$236,250

News from 9/18/97:
On a visit to Louisville from the New York corporate offices, Michelle Smith held a meeting at our store along with our DM, GM, AMs and supervisors to announce an increase in the starting pay for part-time booksellers up from $5.00/hr to $5.75/hr. and full-time booksellers from $5.50/hr. to $6.25/hr. Michelle indicated that through a study, Barnes & Noble determined that Louisville had grown, but Barnes & Noble store #2705 had not kept pace. She also indicated that booksellers in Louisville had "raised their hands."

News from 9/19/97:
Almost every employee in our store (excluding supervisors already making $7.50/hr.) had their wages increased at least 35 cents/hr. Most increases were 50 cents/hr. Today my wage was adjusted from $6.60/hr to $7.50/hr., plus I was promised a check for backpay covering my wage as if it had been $7.00/hr. since May 4th, 1997. If you look at Homefair's International Salary Calculator, employees in other cities can compare their yearly salary to my gross in Louisville.
News from the week of 9/28 - 10/4:
Booksellers organizing at another Barnes & Noble in Kansas City were all promised raises and an increase in the starting wage for their store. Their regional director stated that employees in that store were heard "Loud andClear" that pay was an issue that needed to be addressed.
News from 10-10-97
Officer Tolworthy's options exercised 9/11 & 9/16 filed with the Securities & Exchange Commission

News from Kansas City Store #2574 - Oct. 13
We finally had our meetings to get our 'adjustments' in pay at the end ofthis last week, with our store and District managers. Individual littlemeetings, please don't discuss this among your fellow employees, typething. They used what the military likes to term a 'Divide and Conquer'tactic. Seniority played a role against us, if anything. Basically itworked out (from the others I've talked to, and who they've talked to)that if you haven't been here long, you got an 'adjustment', and thelongterm employees who have the experience under our belts, got nothingexcept maybe our review a little early, or maybe a nickle. Folks whohave been with us maybe two months got up to $.75 or possibly more.

Looks to me like they want to take the teeth out of the union for thenewer employees, and make sure we older employees don't have the supportwe're going to need, if we even stick around after treatment like that.You might want to warn people about this, make sure that other stores gettheir drive worked on quickly.

In their Oct. 13 issue, "Business Week" ran a rumor story about Borders making a secret stab at taking over B&N. Paine Weber news service ran a response from B&N CEO Len Riggio in which the following was stated: Len Riggio is famously competitive, and dismisses Borders' as "K-mart management." (The story states that Borders was spun off from K-mart)

Now, let's have a look at an example of that famously competitive, non-K-mart management in action at a B&N somewhere west of NYC corporate headquarters (not Louisville and not Kansas City and not Arlington):

News in a message from a B&N employee from the week of 10/5 - 10/11
It doesn't go well. The day I after I distributed some union literature inthe breakroom, I was asked to go into the office. I was told that I havea tardiness problem. I was late 3 times in the past month (as in 5-10minutes late) and therefore I was a problem employee. Even though Ipointed out that supervisors, keyholders, and managers have been seencoming in later than me, and that I was told by them it was not that big aproblem; it made no difference and they were also being dealt with, and itwasn't my concern what they did or didn't do anyway. I also pointed outthat the days in question were overtime days where I volunteered to come inand work 6am to 7:30pm. I was told that that makes no difference as well.I then demanded that another person be present in the room. At first themanager tried to talk me out of it, but then agreed. A keyholder wascalled in to sit in. I was told that I was being passed over for promotionbecause of this and would not be allowed to transfer to the new store (theone opening across town). In addition, if I was late again, or broke anymore regulations in the next 90 days, I would be immediately terminated.At the end of 90 days, then my request for a transfer would be consideredand "some other issues of concern to management" about my job performancewould be discussed. When I asked what these were, I was told that therewas "no time to go into them." I was told that it was my choice if Iwanted to discuss this with other people, but it would probably be "nicer"if I were to just keep it "between us." I left the office and asked thekeyholder what he thought. He told me that while it is a valid case, hefelt I was being treated much more harshly than other employees, but didn'tsee a way I could prove that. I was also told by a bookseller who workedwith this manager before that this is a favored tactic for getting rid ofpeople that are not liked--as the parking and traffic around the storewould make anybody late at least a few times. I did seek an attorney'sadvice and was told that while unfair, it would be very difficult to proveanything illegal or discriminatory, and Barnes & Noble would simply stallthe case out until I ran out of resources or money. On Oct 3, I turned ina two-week notice of my resignation from Barnes & Noble.(please note: This message is from a momentarily anonymous B&N worker and not from the author of this page.) Since then, Ihave been interviewing for positions at other companies. I have a lot ofexperience, and Barnes & Noble is one of the lowest paying employers in thecity, so I feel I can get another job easily--one that pays more.

The pay was never as important as the fact that I liked my job. I loved tohelp customers and find books. I enjoyed working in a bookstore. I am agood employee, my drawer always balances, I go out of my way to make sureeach customer is treated with the kind of respect they deserve, I am thefastest shelver there and I know every section almost by heart, I work longovertime hours whenever asked, and I even went above and beyond my dutieson several instances to help management with computer applications andrepair. I feel like I have been cheated and treated horribly, much likemany of the other employees there. By the time I leave, there will be only1 person still employed there (a keyholder) that was working there when Istarted working there. That means out of 60 employees there will be only 1who worked at that store longer than 1 year. My only consolation is thatthe current management's karma is already coming back to them. Boxes arepiled floor to ceiling in the receiving room with little hope of evercatching up. The number of customer complaints has gone up, and thecustomer service has gone down, as they rush to fill positions with lesserqualified, but more obsequious, new employees.

The good news is that another employee there wantsto pick up the union organizing where I left off. I really hope ithappens. I think Barnes & Noble employees definitely need a union.

I was in training for asupervisor before the new manager took over, after which, it was all blownoff with endless excuses. "This person has more experience since they weremanager of a restaurant," or "This person is able to work Sunday morningand your not," etc, etc. Since then, I have been passed over for promotionseveral times; watching people I have trained, or were still training,being promoted over me. Just recently, people who started there only lastmonth have been promoted to supervisor. Yesterday, I even had to show oneof the new supervisors how to write a merchandise memo and showed anotherone how to flash out a register.

Those sympathetic to the union that remain have another job that is theirprimary source of income. (While I could do the same, I have otheractivities, through my church and otherwise, that are very important to mylife). I am in a precarious financial position. There have been a fewmonths were I wasn't able to buy enough food to eat every day. ... I and others have been treated badly, horriblywronged, and despite how it turned out for us personally, I cannot forgivethat.
(please note: This message is from a momentarily anonymous B&N worker and not from Wesley Gibbs, the author of this page.)
Special thanks to Barnes & Noble for its Oct. 23 hosting of Writers Harvest to help combat hunger and poverty around the country. A single mother of three, who has worked at our store for over 2 years and qualifies for food stamps on her salary proudly wore her Writer's Harvest Button. Click here for a related story from a different store.

Be sure to call Share Our Strength, the beneficiary of Writers Harvest at (800) 969-4767 and let them know what you think of B&N's efforts to fight hunger and poverty.

Some notes from James Withrow at Borders in Philadelphia:

We should advise employees to:
1) Contact a UFCW organizer. Look in the phone book or ask one of usfor a reference.
2) Then and only then distribute in the breakroom orhave any other employees become involved.
3) When harassed, ask for a written warning.

Earnings are really the true test of the value of a company... We front-loaded the retail business with massive investments in retail stores, and the earnings power of those stores is just starting to be unleashed. Over the next three or four years, the profitability of the company is going to explode.
- B&N Officer Steve Riggio in an interview with Adweek


News from Store #2705 in Louisville 10/17/97
A recidivist on our management team removed an employee's legally posted AP newspaper article titled "Generation X Joining The Ranks of Union Workers" with a story about Starbuck's employees in Vancouver from our bulletin board today just before 6 new employees arrived for training. Yeesh. Don't look now, but according to the previous standards of enforcement, that is another violation of employee's rights.

News from Store #2705 in Louisville week of 11/2 - 11/9
In yearly reviews, many employees in the Louisville store received a .50 cent per hour increase in their wages - again. Most supervisors in our store now make $8.00/hr. That is an approximate increase of 23% since September. Goodness knows they deserved it. Interestingly enough, according to the Homefair salary calculator, booksellers at B&N's corporate showcase stores in New York should be making $22.91/hr. to enjoy a comparable standard of living.

News from Louisville - December 5, 1997
Barnes & Noble charged with unfair labor practices. A federal investigation is currently underway.

Case 9-CA-35548

Amended charges filed Dec. 18th

Since on or about August 1997, the above named Employer engaged in surveillance of employees; interrogated employees; disparately removed union literature from the bulletin board; and disparately enforced a policy forbidding employees from congregating in the parking lot all in retaliation for union activities.

See NLRB Notice.

About Aug. 29th 1997, the Employer, by manager X promised to remedy grievances and offered an increase in wages to an employee if employees abandoned their union organizing activities.

See NLRB Notice.

For a few week period around the end of August or early September 1997, the Employer removed the employee phone list in order to discourage employees from communicating about union organizing.

Click here to see the B&N response to this charge

About September 18th, 1997 the Employer granted pay raises to discourage employee's union organizing efforts.

Click here to see the B&N response to this charge

On November 6th, 1997 the employer refused to allow [an employee] to work part-time and constructively discharged him because of his union activities.

Click here to see the B&N response to this charge

Names have been removed to protect privacy

"Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."
-Martin Luther King Jr.




Field Offices of the NLRB

Excerpts from the Wagner Act, U.S. Government statutes passed in 1935:

"Section 7. Employees shall have the right to self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing, and to engage in other concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining...and shall have the right to refrain from such activities."

"Section 8. (a) It shall be unfair labor practice for an employer '(1)...to interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in section 7' ; and (3) by discrimination "...in regard to hire or tenure of employment," to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization."

Back to Table of Contents




I have spent some time researching documents from the company's public corporate Security and Exchange Commission filings. I have been interested in purchasing stock in my place of employment. This would insure that I have some voice (in however small amount that I might be able to afford in broker commissioned purchase of shares of Barnes & Noble company stock bought at current market prices). This purchase would give me a certified stake and voting rights in my place of employment.


Much to my dismay, here is what I found:

This information was found on the internet at the following URL:
http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

The following table summarizes the compensation paid or accrued by the Company for services rendered during the years indicated to the Company's Chief Executive Officer and the Company's four other most highly compensated executive officers. The Company did not grant any restricted stock awards or free-standing stock appreciation rights or make any long-term incentive plan payouts during the years indicated.

SUMMARY COMPENSATION TABLE
LONG-TERM COMPENSATION
------------
AWARDS
----------

FISCAL YEAR ENDED ON OR ABOUT JANUARY 31
--------------------------------------------------------------------------My Comments
Name and Principal PositionYearSalaryBonus(not appearing on the original page)
Leonard Riggio.............................
Chairman of the Board
and Chief Executive Officer
1997
1996
1995
$900,000
$900,000
$900,000
$540,000
$405,000
$270,000
1997 salary+bonus=
(approx. $692.30/hr.)*

(including 4+ week
paid vacation)
Irene R. Miller.........................
Vice Chairman
and Chief Financial Officer
1997
1996
1995
$448,462
$379,808
$295,000
$276,000
$180,000
$177,000
29% increase to 348.30/hr*
18.6% increase to 269.13/hr*
226.92/hr*
Stephen Riggio..........................
Chief Operating Officer
Officer Steve Online
1997
1996
1995
$448,462
$385,577
$325,000
$276,000
$180,000
$195,000
Mitchell S. Klipper.........................
Executive Vice President
and President of
Barnes & Noble Development
1997
1996
1995
$448,462
$395,577
$375,000
$276,000
$180,000
$225,000
Thomas A. Tolworthy..........................
Vice President
and President of
Barnes & Noble Superstores
1997
1996
1995
$300,000
$295,266
$175,000
$120,000
$60,000
$35,000
Tom only makes $201.92/hr!
But that's double $100.96/hr he made 2 years ago.

*Assuming 2080 work hours per year
*Apologizing for an earlier misassessment corrected by an avid reader from Davis:
"50 weeks * 40 hours/week = 2000 hours seems a more reasonable estimate of the work hours in a year than 10,200. This brings Riggio's compensation up to around $720/hour. Note that there are only 365 * 24 = 8760 hours in a 365-day year.""



Also on http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks:

"The compensation offered by the Company should reward and motivate individual and team performance in
attaining business objectives and
maximizing stockholder value".

Let's get our priorities straight here people!!

Taking care of employee concerns seems to be lumped in with "attaining business objectives." To his credit, Mr. Tolworthy explained that when employees have concerns, B&N will try to take care of them. So, when workers in our store cried Union! B&N jumped. Otherwise, the directors might have been tending to the other half of their job: "maximizing stockholder value."


This information was found on the internet at the following URL:
http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth information regarding
the beneficial ownership of shares of Common Stock,
as of April 16, 1997, by each person known by the
Company to own beneficially more than five percent
of the Company's outstanding Common Stock, by each
Director and nominee for Director, by each executive
officer named in the Summary Compensation Table
contained in "Executive Compensation," and by all
Directors and executive officers of the Company as a
group. Except as otherwise noted, each person named
in the table has sole voting and investment power with
respect to all shares of Common Stock shown as beneficially
owned by him, her or it.
Name and Address of Beneficial OwnerShares
Beneficially
Owned
Percent of Shares
Beneficially Owned
My Comments
(Do not appear on original page)
Leonard Riggio.................
c/o Barnes & Noble, Inc.
122 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10011
8,391,751
24.7%
Forstman-Leff Associates, Inc.....
55 East 52nd Street
New York, NY 10055
3,761,965
11.3%
Investment Firm
(Not a Human Being)
Leon G. Cooperman ....................
c/o Omega Advisors, Inc.
Wall Street Plaza, 31st Floor
New York, NY 10005
1,709,600
5.1%
Investment Advisors, Inc................
3700 First Bank Place
P.O. Box 357
Minneapolis, MN 55440
1,688,250
5.1%
Investment Firm
(Not a Human Being)
Irene Miller.................
348,351
1.0%
Stephan Riggio.................
1,062,161
3.1%
Mitchell S. Klipper.................
896,259
2.6%
Thomas A. Tolworthy.................
40,423
*
Matthew A. Berdon.................
43,500
*
William Dillard II................
20,000
*
Jan Michael Hessels.................
11,000
*
Margaret Monaco.................
13,000
*
Michael N. Rosen.................
16,000
*
William Sheluck, Jr..................
26,000
*
Executive Officers as a group (15 Persons)........................10,991,604
Minimum possible percentage of company owned by non-humans:
16.4%

That's 16.4% ownership by non-humans or "its"

In actuality, most of the company shares are owned by mutual funds. It is not unreasonable to believe that return on their investment is our company's primary order of business. Draw your own conclusions.

In all fairness, we certainly must consider Mr. Leon Cooperman a human being. But be sure to ask him about that INC. on the back of Omega Advisor's, Inc.


Please also see a chart at forbes.com which indicates that Leonard Riggio's monopoly of ownership in B&N runs about 24.35% ahead of the national average for retail CEOs (which on average is about .35%).

Back to Table of Contents



Be sure to check out the August 4th issue of Publisher's Weekly. In that issue on p. 49 they list the operating profit of Barnes & Noble for fiscal year 1997 as
"$199 million"

$51,200,000.00 Net earnings for 97 per www.shareholder.com/bks/

If by some miracle, the employees of the company were to see that money....well, a little math says that $51,200,000.00/25,500 employees = $2,784.03 per employee. Didn't we earn some of that money? Oh, but that cash goes to our shareholders who actually own our company. Technically, they earned it.


Barnes & Noble, Inc. Reports Record Earnings for the 52 weeks ended January 31, 1998
$74 million net
This information appears at:
http://www.wizvax.net/leli/retail/bkstore.htm

CEO Salaries
Barnes & Noble:
Leonard Riggio
- salary: $900,000 Bonus:$540,000
Borders: Robert DiRomualdo- salary: $515,000 Bonus: $525,300
Crown Books: Steve Stevens (1996 data) - salary: $233,600 Bonus: $37,500
Books-a-Million: Clyde Anderson - salary: $290,000 Bonus: $10,000


The rationale from Barnes & Noble Executive Compensation:
http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks



"Base Salaries. An executive officer's base salary is determined by evaluating the responsibilities of the position held, the individual's experience and the competitive marketplace for executive talent.The base salary is intended to be competitive with base salaries paid to executive officers with comparable qualifications, experience and responsibilities at other companies."


Len's salary certainly looks competitive to me.


Also from:
http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks:

"The Company uses a jet aircraft owned by B&N College and pays for the costs and expenses of operating the aircraft based upon the Company's usage. Such costs, which include fuel, insurance, personnel and other costs, approximated $1,685,000 during fiscal 1996."

Personal note: It seems we need to make sure that our execs at Barnes & Noble don't have to worry about the stress or hardship of flying business class.

I just got back from a visit with a member of my family in San Francisco. My coach "class" ticket cost 5% of my annual Salary.

But Wait! There's more:
at http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001071.cfm?companyid=bks


"The Company utilizes the LTA Group, Inc. ("LTA") as one of its freight consolidators and carriers. A brother of a principal shareholder/director/executive officer of the Company owns a 20% interest in LTA."

As if they want to emphasize this fact to their shareholders. Dont' believe me?
Check it out for yourself.

This is all listed at the Barnes & Noble Investor Relations Homepage. And as the good folks at the B&N home page would say:


We hope you found this profile of the company's financial performance helpful. Shareholder Direct: 1-888-BKS-NEWS


Under the link "About Barnes & Noble" on the company's internet bookselling page, this statement appears:

"(BKS)

Shares of the company stock are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol (BKS). Approximately 33,000,000 shares are outstanding -- 24% are owned by Riggio and 10% are owned by other members of the management team. The company has also given shares to over 4,000 booksellers through its 401k plan."
This is my comment:

If I maxed out my 401k contributions for this year, on my salary, the company would provide me with $343.20 in matching funds (that come in the form of company stock). The market price for our stock on Sept. 12th, 1997 was $48.37. That means if I max out my 401k, I would qualify for 7.10 shares of voting stock in my company (but because of "vesting," I actually own the value of only 1.775 of those shares). When I consider my options, I am almost overcome with gratitude for this opportunity to have a voice in my place of work. I know I can't compete with most other stockholders, but at least I have a voice, darn it! So don't let anyone tell you B&N is not democratic. (sorry we got this wrong earlier)
Although I can use that stock to vote in proxy, I won't actually own 100% of the value of that stock until I've worked for B&N for 5 years. That is, if I can afford to continue to work there for another 4 years! So just remember, when you are drooling over all those matching funds piling up in your 401k, you won't see a penny of that cash if you quit before 2 years, and only 100% after you've been working for Barnes & Noble for at least 5 years.

Also, please consider just for a moment the amount of stock held by the lucky 4,000 booksellers the company has given stock to through our 401k plan. Let's say that each of these booksellers owns 100 shares (I know that's a generous estimate). That works out to at grand total of 400,000 shares. That would equal the totality of the bookseller's voting voice in the corporation. If we all voted together, we would account for 1.2% of the company's outstanding shares. I'm sorry, but it looks to me like we are shut out of this game!


And if you think you actually hold those stocks fellow bookseller, think again! Those securities are firmly held by Fidelity Investments and your votes only count in proxy. That is, you send Fidelity your votes and they actually vote in the company for you. Dont believe me? See http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000889812-97-001072.cfm?companyid=bks. There, kindly enough, B&N lists the actual number of record shareholders in the company with voting rights as of April 4, 1997 as 885!. That certainly is a far cry from the "4,000 booksellers who have received stock through the 401k plan."

So, your shares are held in "street" name - in other words in the name of Fidelity who holds the shares for you. All correspondence between the investor (you) and the company (B&N) goes through Fidelity. When you cash out your 401k, guess who you buy those shares from?? Yes, Fidelity - and odds are good you get to pay their brokerage fees and commissions. B&N has in effect put a mutual fund between itself and its employees. (Not surprising since Mutual Funds own so much of our company!) In addition to "locking up" your shares, Fidelity really loves your "street" name shares because they can earn nice fees from lending street-name shares to investors who sell borrowed shares (short sellers) and others. Yes, beloved booksellers, it is perfectly legal for a brokerage firm to lend your shares if you have a "street-name" or margin account, just as it is legal for a bank to lend your money in a savings account. And, just as a bank can earn interest on loans made with your money, so can Fidelity earn fees on shares they lend to investors.
Thanks for some of this concept to No-Load Stocks. ISBN: 0070118809

And just in case you forgot to read the fine print on your 401k, be sure to notice that:
"The company reserves the right to adjust contributions at any time."

And

"The company reserves the right to amend or terminate the plan at any time."


Click here to see the straight skinny on the Barnes & Noble 401k .


If employees own a big stake in the company where they work, you should consider buying stock. When employees believe in the company and have their money in it, the company is bound to be more successful.

Several academic and professional market studies show that the performance of companies with a sizable employee ownership will beat the Standard & Poor's 500 stock index by around 10 percent.

Reference:
"When employees Own Big Stake, It's A Buy Signal For Investors"
by James A. White
p.C1 Wall Street Journal Feb. 12, 1992.

Includes data gathered by Rutgers University Employee Owner's Index consisting of 205 stocks with employee holdings of at least 10%; each company has a stock market value of at least $50 million. This index has risen 35.9% (excluding dividends) to S&P's 26.3%

and

Data collected from 1979 through 1992 on funds managed by Mark Cunningham of Alliance Capital Management consisting of companies with 10% of their shares in the hands of active employees.




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An Example of Director's Stock Options
From :http://www.shareholder.com/newedgar/data/890491/0000910643-97-000104.cfm?companyid=bks


U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 4
STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP Filed pursuant to Section 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Section 17(a) of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 or Section 30(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

Statement for Month/Year: July 1997

Name and Address of Reporting Person*

Miller, Irene R. (who has now left the company)

New York NY 10024

Relationship of Reporting Person to Issuer (Check all applicable)
/X/ Director / / 10% Owner
/ / Officer (give title below) / / Other (Specify below)

1. Title of Security Day Amount Price
------------------------------- --------- ---------- -------- --- -------- ------------
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/1/97 1,553 A $ 7.168
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/1/97 6,505 A $24.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/1/97 20,342 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/1/97 28,400 D $43.000
A=Securities Acquired D=Securities Disposed Of

Total number of shares acquired on 7/1/97 = 28,400
Acquisition price= $ 663,088.15
Total number of shares sold on 7/1/97 = 28,400
Sold for $1,221,200.00
Profit Realized on 7/1/97 =
$ 558,111.85 Return=184%

Common Stock, par value $.001 7/8/97 50,000 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/8/97 50,000 D $43.000
profit $931,250

Common Stock, par value $.001 7/10/97 3,000 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/10/97 3,000 D $44.500
profit $ 60,375

Common Stock, par value $.001 7/11/97 20,000 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/11/97 20,000 D $44.500
profit = $395,000

Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 61,100 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 34,300 D $45.500
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 10,000 D $46.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 200 D $45.813
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 9,300 D $45.750
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 S 2,100 D $45.625
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/23/97 S 5,200 D $45.563
profit=$667,548.63

Common Stock, par value $.001 7/24/97 26,400 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 7/24/97 26,400 D $45.500
profit=$557,700

Be sure to notice the seriously discounted purchase price of the shares as compared to the same day sell price.


Total Profits on stock options realized for the month of July, 1997 by Director Irene Miller =
$2,814,485.48

From http://www.shareholder.com

Options for:

1. Name and Address of Reporting Person*

Tolworthy Thomas A.
(Last) (First) (Middle)

c/o Barnes & Noble, Inc.
122 Fifth Avenue
(Street)

New York New York 10011
(City) (State) (Zip)
_________________________________________________

Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 M 5,000 A $20.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 S 5,000 D $46.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 M 3,859 A $24.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 S 3,859 D $46.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 M 10,000 A $30.000
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/11/97 S 10,000 D $46.000
$

Total profit for Officer Thomas Tolworthy for transactions on 9/11
$374,898

Common Stock, par value $.001 9/16/97 M 10,000 A $24.375
Common Stock, par value $.001 9/16/97 S 10,000 D $48.000

and total profit on 9/16:
$236,250

Whoa

Total profit realized on stock options like these for all booksellers at B&N combined for the year 1997: $0


*note:
2 women sit on our board of directors. Every board member is caucasian. font>

From Bureau of Labor Statistics Data Pageftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/news.release/empsit.txt

records the Average Hourly Wage for employees in Retail Trade for June, 1998:
$8.68/hr

The new B&N in Philadelphia started booksellers at $7.00/hr.

How much do you make??



An analysis of the terms of employment for booksellers at Barnes and Noble:

It is vague, ambiguous, and subject to change at any time...

It is the Barnes and Noble Bookseller Orientation Handbook.

Great profits are being made at your expense: Barnes and Noble, Inc. generated $2.4 billion in revenues and made an operating profit of $199 million in fiscal year 1997. Those actually selling the books, coffee and other merchandise in superstores saw very little of that profit. But these simple economics aren't the only reason to organize. Consider the limitations of your employee handbook and the benefits a legally-binding union contract.
The Handbook is full of "mays" and "mights" and its last page reminds the reader that nothing in the text is meant to be construed as a contract of employment. The outlined disciplinary process states that if a problem is not resolved verbally, "a written warning may be required" and "One or two of these more formal discussions might be held to provide an employee with the chance to improve and avoid dismissal." (p.18) The raise policy is left vague by the statement: "Your potential for a pay increase will be based on your performance within the company's guidelines." (p.19) Your status as a Barnes & Noble employee is made very clear, however, with the explanation of the fact that you are an at-will employee and can be fired at any time, for any reason or no reason at all. (The limitations they don't mention include prohibition of termination because of a worker's race or sex, or if she is involved in union organizing). The Handbook also states, "all terms and conditions of employment are subject to change at any time" (p.43)
Workers with a legally-binding union contract don't labor under such uncertain terms of employment. A contract spells out rights and expectations and establishes a formal grievance procedure to settle disciplinary matters and alleged violations of the contract. This process includes the right to have a union steward (a fellow employee elected by you) present at all disciplinary proceedings. Wages and raises are also outlined. The contract eliminates the at-will status of employment. And finally, because it is a legally-binding agreement, the contract must be abided by and can be enforced in a court of law (if necessary) for its duration.



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Know your rights!!
Your Employer Can Not Legally:

  • Ask you if you have signed a union card.
  • Ask you what you think about the union.
  • Threaten, coerce, or harass you through a supervisor or fellow employee.
  • Threaten you with loss of your present benefits.
  • Threaten you with discharge or punishment for union activity.
  • Threaten to close the facility if you form a union.
  • Promise you benefits if you reject the union.
  • Spy on or interfere with your union activity.
  • If your employer does any of the above, let your local union know immediately. They will file unfair labor practice charges on your behalf with the NLRB.

What can a union do for you?

  • Provide a legally binding contract of employment that will remove your "at will" status and insure that you can not be terminated without proper legal process. As it stands now, you can be terminated for any time and for any reason or no reason. An official contract (much like those signed by managers) will provide job security. Having a union means that fairness, not favoritism rules the day. A union means management can't make up the rules as it goes along.
  • A pay increase. Negotiated properly, a good contract will insure more pay for you. Union dues work out to approximately 13 cents per hour (in our area) and any pay increase above that will go straight into your pocket. Plus, that 13 cents gives you peace of mind and stability. The median weekly salary of unionized retail workers in 1995 was $425 while the median weekly salary of non-unionized retail workers was $325. (from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
  • Improved health care and benefits, either by joining a medical group of 1.5 million working people (as opposed to Barnes and Noble’s 25,000+ employees) or by requiring B&N to make a larger contribution to your health bill. In addition to better maternity leave and shift bonuses, unions work on behalf of their members to negotiate more days of paid sick leave, education leave, job sharing, flexible work hours, and workplace child care. Statistics prove that a significant number of employees who are union members have benefits that non-union members do without.
    see Julie White, Sisters and Solidarity Published by Thompson Educational Pub Publication date: June 1993 ISBN: 1550770454
  • Union members have representatives (elected by them) to help them enforce their rights to a healthy and safe workplace and a workplace free of discrimination and harassment.



    • Even company executives say that the single most important reason for poor productivity is management not doing its job. The presence of a union forces inefficient organizations to become more productive.
      Survey of 236 top executives in 95 U.S. corporations, "The Awkward Truth About Productivity," in Harvard Business Review, September/October 1982
    • Academic studies have shown that unionized companies have higher rates of productivity than non-union firms.
      Richard B Friedman and James L. Medoff, What Do Unions Do? (Basic Books:NY, 1984 ISBN: 0465091334) p.180
    • One recent study concludes that the way a company handles conflict affects productivity, not whether or not its workers are represented by a union. An agreement that a union negotiates with a company about work rules can mean a more stable production process because conflicts are resolved during the bargaining process.
      Dale Belman, "The Quality Of Labor Relations and Firm Performance" in L. Mishel and P.B. Voos, eds., Unions And Economic Competitiveness, (Armonk,NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.,1992)
    • Economists have argued for decades about the relation between unions and productivity. Much depends on how you choose to measure productivity per worker, but on the whole a unionized workplace is a more productive and efficient workplace.
      M.R. Kelley and Bennett Harrison, "Unions, Technology and Labor-Management Cooporation," in L. Mishel and P.B. Voos, eds., Unions And Economic Competitiveness, p. 251: "Among branch plants of more complex organizations, unionized operations are significantly more efficient than [plants that] have no unions."
    • Unions increase overall efficiency because there's less turnover in unionized workplaces, workers stay longer and employers spend less time hiring and training new employees.
      Labor Market Activity Survey, 1986 "56% of union members working full time had been in the same job for 5 or more years compared to 34% of non-union employees working full time."
    • If management and the union have a good working relationship, then productivity is higher than in most non-union environments. If the relations are hostile, then productivity is lower than in the average non-union workplace.
      Freeman and Medoff, What Do Unions Do? p. 165
    • It's easier to be a bad manager when your employees dare not complain.
      Thanks to Mary Cornish & Lynn Spink for this information from their book Organizing Unions ISBN: 0929005554



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    What about initiation fees and union dues?

    When you are organizing a union, there is no initiation fee. Initiation fees are charged to those who are hired after a contract goes into effect. This fee is set by members of the local union. If you don't like the contract, you can turn it down.

    Minimum dues are set by the Union's International Constitution. Local union bylaws provide that members set their own dues. You don't pay dues until after a contract goes into effect. So it doesn't cost you anything until you have a contract that has been approved by a majority of the union members where you work.


    After you have achieved recognition of your union from your employer, the steps to getting a contract are as follows:

    • 1. A contract proposal meeting is called. At this meeting you and your fellow employees decide what you want and what you will ask from your employer.

    • 2. Company and union representatives meet and negotiate on proposals.

    • 3. When the union representatives have tentatively agreed on the terms of a contract, or the employer has made a final offer, a contract ratification meeting is called.

    • 4. At the ratification meeting employees consider the company's offer and vote by secret ballot whether to accept or reject it. You have the final say on everything that is negotiated.

    • 5. If a majority vote to reject a contract, they can either send their negotiators back into bargaining or vote to take strike action against their employer to enforce their demands.

    Employers will say almost anything to keep workers from organizing unions. When workers join together they acquire the power to make their workplaces more democratic and improve their wages and benefits. So, you can expect resistance, misinformation and maybe even lies. There is a huge management consulting industry dedicated to busting unions and stopping organizing campaigns. Others who have organized have advice to offer on the specifics of what you are likely to hear:

    • A union is a third party that will disrupt the 'special relationship' between management and employees. We're a family here and don't need interference.
      A union is an organization with resources available for the use of working people. Still, it is not something 'brought in from outside' but is primarily a relationship between workers. Workers joined together are the union. The union is the people who belong to it. Taking the "you" out of unions is a ploy often used by employers. They want you to see the union as outsiders. They want you to think of the union as a product you are considering buying rather than a right which you have to improve yourself. It is romantic but wrong to pretend that workers and management are one big happy family until a union comes along. Our free-market economy is a zero-sum game in which more wages, benefits and power for workers means less for management and shareholders. Unions did not create this division but exist to make it more fair. The "outside" influences that worry an employer most are employees not only gaining power to make effective demands, but also gaining the power to back them up.

    • Unions cause strikes. Unions force workers out on strike. Unions only know how to solve workplace disputes with strikes.
      Union workers do sometimes go on strike, but only with good reason and after a strike vote (with 67% approval) has been taken. 99% of contracts are negotiated without a strike. In fact, one purpose of a union is to make the relationship between workers and the company more predictable. For example, a typical union contract establishes a grievance procedure to resolve workplace disputes without favoritism, arbitrary treatment, misplaced blame and unearned disciplinary action. If you do need to strike and vote to do so, you have the resources and power made available by other members of your union to win. (Amazingly enough, strike pay in our area from the UFCW is almost identical to regular pay for Barnes & Noble Employees.)

    • Unions are rigid and don't like change
      Unions have led the way for change. For example, they helped bring in the introduction of worker's compensation (1915), the minimum wage (1920), old age pensions (1927), unemployment insurance (1935), laws on human rights (1962), medicare (1966), as well as health and safety protections (1972). Inside unions, thousands of people volunteer their time and work co-operatively to find practical, democratic solutions.

    • Unions Are A Business Like Any Other
      Unions are non-profit organizations in the business of improving the lives of working people. How many corporations can make a similar claim?

    • Big Union Bosses Only Want Your Money!
      People who talk like this have seen too many anti-union movies like "On The Waterfront"! Unions aren't that big and unions aren't run by bosses. Unions are democratic organizations led by elected officials who must work with an elected executive board. This board and its officers are responsible to members of the union. If members are not satisfied with their elected officials, they choose new ones at election time. Just try to do that if you don't like your boss! Unions are not businesses despite what corporate executives and management might want you to think. Unions collect dues to pay for services for their members like organizing, collective bargaining and servicing contracts. By law, union finances are public and their accounts must be audited. Salaries for union officers are listed in union constitutions. Just compare these salaries to the salaries of your average CEO. Union workers consider their dues a form of job insurance, a payment into a fund that puts them in a better position to demand and get what they deserve in their workplace. Fines are charged against members to preserve union's solidarity - such as discipline of scabs, which is in the interest of every member. (Just ask a union member you know when is the last time they remember anyone being fined) The strength of the labor movement is people, not money.

    • Unions are anti-democratic and corrupt.
      Corporations are actually one of the best examples of anti-democratic institutions. See our terms of employment. Non-union workers at the bottom of the corporate hierarchy have little or no say in the conditions of employment, management practices or company policies. On the other hand, union members elect their union officers which are fellow union members who can be held accountable for decisions they make. See also: Aren't all unions corrupt?


    • We admit that we've made some mistakes in the past, but if you give us another chance you'll see that things will be different.
      Often, management tries to stop organizing campaigns by making small adjustments in wages or getting rid of an unpopular supervisor. This is a response that comes from fear of the organizing campaign. It is not a real commitment to workplace democracy and more equitable wages and benefits. Before giving management another chance it makes more sense to give employees a first chance. Management may also hold meetings with employees to "listen" to their grievances. This is not the same as a grievance procedure. It holds no guarantee that problems will be solved as you would like them to be and does nothing to reverse the power imbalance between employers and employees. The purpose of these meetings is to get workers to blow off steam, to trick some into thinking they have a say in what happens at the workplace. Management might tell you their door will always be open, but issues like the employee stock freezeout, the at-will employee status, executives accountable only to shareholders, and utterly inadequate pay can hardly be settled this way.

      Back to Table of Contents



      Stories of great interest to any Barnes & Noble bookseller:

      M a y - J u n e 1 9 9 7: In spite of Borders?misinformation and intimidation tactics, workers in West Des Moines and Bryn Mawr stayed focused on the issues. They knew that Borders?profits increased an estimated 53 percent in the past year, and that the company plans to open 40 new stores in 1997. But their wages, which haven’t gone up in five years, remain in the $6 to $7 range. Jacqueline Umberger, an organizer in the West Des Moines store, explained, "We wanted to be able to pay our bills. We wanted to stay at Borders. "Local 1776 UFCW President Wendell W. Young, III commented, "The pro-union sweep at Borders demonstrates that retail employees can collectively assert their rights to join a union and bargain for a decent standard of living." It began with Chicago. Now West Des Moines and Bryn Mawr workers are inspiring other Borders employees across the country. UFCW campaigns currently underway from Albany to Honolulu will rely on the Iowa and Pennsylvania victories to help develop strategies for union drives at all 157 Borders stores.



      Last March, employees at a Philadelphia Borders launched a strong campaign to join the Industrial Workers of the World, though the staff ultimately voted it down. Then Miriam Fried -- a key organizer whom supervisors considered an excellentbookseller -- was fired. Though Borders denies it, both Friedand the I.W.W. are certain it was for union activity. The CityCouncil, by unanimous vote, has urged the store to reinstate her.

      Activists say Fried's case, along with local management'sintimidation, has convinced many employees that organizingcould cost them their livelihood. At the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,warehouse -- where workers voted down the union 87 to 44 theday after Des Moines voted yes -- Borders reminded workers itcould "close up and go somewhere else." Supervisors would say,"And then what would you do?" one employee told us. (Fearingfor her job, she asked that her name not be printed.)

      In the long run, threats and misinformation may have hurtBorders more than the union. In Chicago, says clerk andorganizer Greg Popek, the campaign "left a bad taste ineveryone's mouth," making even anti-union booksellers cynicalabout the company. So did Borders' employment of Jackson,Lewis, famous for strong-arming janitors and nursing-home staff.

      The victories in Des Moines and Chicago are laying the groundwork for a national network. Although Jodie Kohn ofBorders says she hasn't heard of any other mobilization efforts,employees in Albany, St. Louis, Seattle, San Francisco, LosAngeles, Honolulu and elsewhere are beginning to fight forrepresentation -- and, ultimately, a single contract for the entire157-store chain. Workers in Harrisburg and Philadelphia areplanning new elections. And Borders organizers are encouragingBarnes & Noble workers to join them, and thus unionize themajority of the country's booksellers. As Miriam Fried says,"The ultimate measure of a company's social responsibility is theway it treats its employees."






      Please let me know what's on your mind as well as any comments you might have:
      I will get back to you as soon as possible.
      Thanks for taking the time to talk to me.




      Click here to send mail to the author




      "First they came for the Jews and I did not speak out - because I was not a Jew...

      Then they came for the Communists and I did not speak out - because I was not a Communist...

      Then they came for the Trade Unionists and I did not speak out - because I was not a Trade Unionist...

      Then they came for me - and there was noone left to speak out for me."

      Pastor Niemoeler

      Also important is the psychological effect of the destruction of unions.It contributes to the privatization of aspirations. It helps eliminate a sense of solidarity and sympathy with others, the understanding that we are in it together and care for one another, not just ourselves. In the early days of the industrial revolution, the lively labor press protested the "new spirit of the age": "Gain wealth, forgetting all but self," a demeaning and degrading doctrine that had to be driven into people's heads with no little violence. Normal human sentiments had to be crushed; they are inconsistent with [an] ideology, which celebrates private profit as the supreme human value and denies people rights beyond what they can salvage in the labor market.

      -Noam Chomsky in Industry vs. Labor

      "Sixteen months ago, my fellow workers and I were gearing up for victory in one of the most important struggles of our lives. We were in the thick of an IWW organizing drive at Borders Books that gave us our hope back just when we thought there was no way our jobs could ever improve. Instead of listing one more time all the problems we had with Borders, I want to remember for a moment how the union made us feel. It felt like a miracle.

      Before the union, we felt depressed and powerless. With the union, we felt like we could determine our own fate. What a joy it was to work together with trust and loyalty, planning the future of our jobs, our bookstore and our union. We could even enjoy our jobs again, feeling like we were doing our best for each other, not for the sake of some rich corporate boss who just wanted the profits we could make for him. At that point we had more excitement for the future than anger at the company. I could see it in the faces of my fellow workers: we were going to create something beautiful and glorious. It was the power of solidarity."

      -Miriam Fried, June 15, 1997


      Visitor:

      Since June 3, 2000





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